Professional Ethics in Computing

         Topic:               Introduction to Ethics Part 2

Answer the following questions:

  1. Describe similarities and differences between divine command theory and Kantianism.

Answer: The similarity between the divine command theory and Kantianism is that they both have basis in reasoning. In divine command theory, we say an action is right or wrong is based on the god. In Kantianism, it is based on chapter or verse. These two can both explain why it is right or wrong. The difference between these two is that in the divine command theory, we believe in God. While in Kantianism, they have this formulation rule

  1. Identify and explain an example of a moral rule that would violate the Categorical Imperative.

Answer: An example of a moral rule that would violate the categorical Imperative could be if I wonder whether I should break a promise, I can test whether this is right by asking myself whether I would want there to be a universal rule that says, ‘it’s OK to break promises’.  If I were thinking philosophically, I might realise that a universal rule that ‘it’s OK to break promises to get one’s own way’, would mean that no-one would ever believe another person’s promise and so all promises would lose their value. Since the existence of promises in society requires the acceptance of their value, the practice of promising would effectively cease to exist. It would no longer be possible to ‘break’ a promise, let alone get one’s own way by doing so.

  1. What is the problem of moral luck?

Answer: Moral luck is an issue related with act utilitarianism. As per act utilitarianism, the ethical worth of an activity relies entirely upon its results. If the results are out of the control of the ethical specialist, an activity that ought to have had a decent impact may wind up having a destructive impact. For this situation, the activity is esteemed to not be right, even though it was no shortcoming of the individual playing out the activity.

  1. Why do businesses and governments often use utilitarian thinking to determine the proper course of action?

Answer: Businesses and governments regularly use utilitarian wondering to decide the appropriate path of motion due to the fact it lets in all the consequences of a selection to be boiled down to dollars and cents (or some different quantifiable unit of measure). In this way a cost- advantage evaluation can become aware of the choice with the best outcome.

  1. What are some examples of contemporary information technology issues for which our society’s moral guidelines seem to be non-existent or unclear? (Hint: Think about issues that are generating a lot of media coverage.)

Answer: One of the problems would be that due to the improvement of information technology, we essentially almost have no privacy anymore. For example, the improvement of Satellite technological know-how ought to even screen the movement of a person via the lenses on space. And other example would be the truth that internet provider may want to acquire all statistics that we made via the internet, which include vital statistics such as social security number and credit score card

  1. Suppose a society holds that it is wrong for one individual to eavesdrop on the telephone conversations of another citizen. Should that society also prohibit the government from listening in on its citizens’ telephone conversations?

Answer: I believe that society ought to not limit the government from listening in on its citizens’ cell phone conversations. However, there must be restrictions on which phone conversation ought to be listened and, which ought to now not be heard. Society shouldn’t restrict the authorities from the use of its power to protect the human beings even if that necessitates them to eavesdrop. Society should continue to discuss the issue, so there is regular cognizance that man or woman freedom must be respected, and government intervention only be used for shielding functions and no longer to perceive or weed out sure dissidents. National security is greater essential than civil rights. Sometimes it’s important for government to do eavesdropping to prevent attacks towards US borders, infrastructures, terrorism, and manageable foreign invasion. Its use can also assist hold immigration manage and international trade.

  1. According to the Golden Rule, you should do unto others as you would want them to do unto you. Which of the five workable ethical theories is closest to the Golden Rule?

Answer: The five workable ethical theories closest to the Golden Rule are:

  1. The platinum Rule

“Treat others the way they want to be treated.”

  • The Rule of Love

Love others as you do yourself (or better).

  • Role-Taking

Put yourself in other’s shoes to know how to treat them ethically.

  • Empathy

Feel and care about the suffering of others.

  • Kant’s Categorical Imperative

“Act only according to that maxim whereby you can, at the same time, will that it should become a universal law.”  In other words, “Only follow ethical rules that you think should be universal.”

  1. Students in a history class are asked to take a quiz posted on the course Web site. The instructor has explained the following rules to the students: First, they are supposed to do their own work. Second, they are free to consult their lecture notes and the textbook while taking the quiz. Third, to get credit for the quiz, they must correctly answer at least 80 percent of the questions. If they do not get a score of 80 percent, they may retake the quiz as many times as they wish.

Mary and John are both taking the quiz. They are sitting next to each other in the computer room. John asks Mary for help in answering one of the questions. He says, “What’s the difference if you tell me the answer, I look it up in the book, or I find out from the computer that my answer is wrong and retake the quiz? In any case, I’ll end up getting credit for the right answer.” Mary tells John the correct answer to the question.

Discuss the morality of Mary’s decision.

Answer: At first, we can see they were supposed to do their own task and secondly, they were even allowed to go through lecture textbooks and notes. Also, they were given multiple tests allow until they get 80 percent. Here john tells Mary to tell him the answer if she didn’t then he can go through books and find the answers. But telling answer to him was not good decision of her as she didn’t respect the word of her teacher. Mary decision was immoral and unethical so as john was. Thus, both must be punished for their wrong deeds.

9.Reflection Exercise: Identify the main topics learnt in this tutorial. (Write in bullet points.)

Answer:

  • Society
  • Morality
  • Ethics
  • Subjective Relativism
  • Cultural Relativism
  • Divine Command Theory
  • Ethical Egoism
  • Kantianism
  • Act Utilitarianism

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